Jane Austen Adjacent Books That Lead Me to P&P Variations

I know Pride and Prejudice variations is a pretty niche genre, so I’m aware that doing reviews of these books isn’t going to be a hugely popular feature on my blog. However, when I first got into them, I looked for recommendations, and I had a hard time finding any. Of course, there are reviews on individual books on Amazon. But there are a surprisingly large number of P&P variations out there, and I didn’t know where to start. Eventually I did find someone who had a recommendation list, and I was grateful that I did. So that’s why I want to do this. Also, I have now read over 150 variations, and I need to do something with all this information!

I’ve taken some steps towards this before. I’ve already posted the list of my absolute favorite variations: https://amandadowntherabbithole.wordpress.com/2020/03/06/my-favorite-pride-and-prejudice-variations/. But before I forge ahead with more variations lists, I’m going to take a step backwards and talk about the books that lead me to P&P variations: what I call, Jane Austen Adjacent books. These are books that are not strict adaptations or modernizations or variations on Jane Austen’s works but works that were influenced by Jane Austen or that heavily reference Jane Austen.

It was because I enjoyed these books and wanted more that I ended up discovering P&P variations, which admittedly are not at all like these books. All of these books are light, charming, and fun.

Confessions of a Jane Austen Addict by Laurie Viera Rigler

Courtney Stone, a young, brokenhearted modern Los Angeles woman, wakes up after a night of drowning her sorrows in vodka and the 1995 BBC version of Pride and Prejudice, to find that she’s in the body of woman in Regency England. She’s not in Jane Austen’s literary world, she’s in Jane Austen’s literal world. At first she thinks she’s dreaming, but quickly realizes she’s now inhabiting the body of Jane Mansfield, and if she doesn’t want to be sent to an asylum, she’s going to have to figure out how to live without toilets and telephonesd, what to make of the eligible Mr. Edgeworth, and ultimately how and if she’ll get her old life back.

This is a really charming, fish-out-of-water story: Modern American woman in Regency England. It’s fun to see her navigate the unfamiliar world. But you do also feel the danger she’s in if she can’t convince everyone she’s the woman whose body she possesses. As she gets to know her suitor, she has to try to see past rumors and her own past experience with men.  There’s an interesting mystical element that helps explain what happened. There’s also a fun cameo by Jane Austen herself.

Rude Awakenings of a Jane Austen Addict by Laurie Viera Rigler

This is more a parallel story than a sequel to Rigler’s Confessions of a Jane Austen Addict. In the previous book Courtney Stone wakes to find herself in Regency England in Jane Mansfield’s body. Here is the story of what happened to Jane: she wakes up in Courtney’s body in modern day L.A. She suddenly goes from a privileged and rather pampered lifestyle to living on her own, having to navigate modern technology and getting a job. And then there are the modern dating rituals.

This is another fun fish-out-of-water story: Regency English woman in Modern America. Her initial reaction to her new life is entertaining. I enjoyed seeing her really take to the independence of her new position and create a life for herself—something different from what Courtney had been doing. And it’s fun to see her reaction to film versions of Jane Austen’s books. Delightful read.

Jane Austen Book Club by Karen Joy Fowler

The eponymous club is made up of five women and one man.They are different ages and situations in life, and over the course of the novel, as they meet to discuss JA’s works, they deal with their own issues. Each chapter is a JA book and the month in which the group discusses it. The month’s books is also a sort of frame through which to see the characters and events. The characters can be seen as analogs to JA’s characters, for instance Jocelyn is a sort of Emma, yet the story as a whole is not trying to modernize/update any one of JA’s novels.

It is an engaging read. I love the opening line “Each of us has a private Austen.” And I really like how each character is introduced by detailing both how they all know each other and what each of their “private Austen’s” is. Plus there’s a bit of a mystery in that the first person narrator is one of the book club members, but you don’t know which one yet.

First Impressions by Charlie Lovett

This is a dual story: A “what if” tale of a formative friendship between Jane Austen and the elderly Reverend Richard Mansfield, and a modern literary mystery. The modern part of the novel is about how an employee of an antiquarian bookshop in London, Sophie Collingwood, becomes embroiled in the mystery of an obscure book written by Richard Mansfield. Along the way she must sort out the mystery of the book and what it might mean for the provenance of Pride and Prejudice and also her feeling for the two men she meets along the way. 

Despite its suspense and mystery, this is a light story. It’s fun and charming. It could appeal to bibliophiles as well as JA fans, and to people who are ignorant of both. It does have it’s own P&P influence in the characters of Sophie’s suitors, who are basically Darcy and Wickham.

Austenland by Shannon Hale

In Austenland, a young American woman, Jane, whose love life suffers because she is constantly comparing the men she meets to Mr. Darcy, gets a chance to spend a three weeks at an Austen-themed resort where she and the other female guests dress in Regency fashions, use Regency etiquette, language, and technology, and are “courted” by actors who seem to be gentlemen lifted straight from the pages of Austen’s novels. 

This is fun and funny. Jane at first struggles to get into the spirit of the thing and finds herself drawn to a seemingly “real” gardener rather than to the obviously “fake” gentlemen. She must determine, what, if anything, in a constructed reality is real and how much it matters. 

Me and Mr. Darcy by Alexandra Potter

Yet another American woman (Emily Albright) for whom Mr. Darcy has set too high a bar for real men to meet who finds herself in England, this time on a Jane Austen bus tour. Her tour companions are mostly older woman, but there is also a slovenly, but funny and handsome journalist trying to understand Mr. Darcy’s allure for a piece he’s writing. There is a slight supernatural aspect to this story that allows Emily to meet and be courted by Mr. Darcy.

It’s fun to see what happens when someone who holds Mr. Darcy up as the ideal man actually meets him. Is he everything she thought he would be? Would a relationship with him really be what she wants? Potter answers these questions in a likable story with likable characters.

Dear Mr. Knightley by Katherine Reay

This story deals with the most serious issues: orphans and abuse in foster care. Main character, Sam, has learned to deal with those issues by retreating into classic literature. She wants to be a journalist and is given a scholarship to a prestigious journalism school, the only catch is she must write letters, detailing her progress, to her benefactor, Mr. Knightley. Along the way, she meets and befriends the author Alex Powell. Over time her letters become more confessional, and through her friendship with Alex she starts to open up and trust more.

I have a bit more to say about this book than the others because it disappointed me. I would still say it is good and worth reading, but I was frustrated by the end. I’ve read other reviews of this book from people who found the beginning disappointing and the end redeeming, but I feel exactly the opposite. 

I like the premise of someone who hides from their trauma and protects themselves from further harm by retreating into books so completely that they no longer know how to speak for themselves. The many literary quotes and how they’re used is fun and creative. And overall, it was well written and engaging.

One of the things that didn’t work for me was the pace of the protagonist’s recovery—it is a little on the fast side: 15 months and no ongoing counseling felt unrealistic. I felt the ending got a little too preachy without earning it, as if the God stuff was added just so it could get published by a Christian publisher. And the happy ending didn’t feel earned either—not that it shouldn’t have ended the way it did, but it was too quick, making it feel too pat.

Practicing

I’ve always loved drawing and painting portraits. I’ve done a fair amount of portraits with acrylic paints, but only recently did I decide to try my hand at watercolor. I’ve always been a little afraid of watercolor because it feels more unforgiving than acrylic. With acrylic, if I make a mistake, I only need to wait a few minutes until it dries before I can paint over the mistake. With watercolor, if I make a mistake, I might need to start over.

The other thing about my skills I’ve noticed is that I have a harder time drawing men than women. I’m not really sure why, but there it is.

So I decided to practice both watercolor painting and drawing men. And because I didn’t want to feel too attached to any of my practice attempts, I thought I’d draw/paint a character I like rather than, say, my husband. If it were my husband, I would probably stop myself from pushing myself, for fear of ruining the picture.

The character I chose was Spike from Buffy the Vampire Slayer (my favorite TV show). The actor, James Marsters, has amazing bone structure. The shadows on his face are so deep and sharp, it adds to the challenge of getting the portrait right.

My first two attempts are on 4 ½” x 6″ paper, and the third is on 6″ x 9″ paper. For some reason I can’t quite figure out, I could not get the proportions of Marters’ face correct on the smaller sized paper. I’m still not 100% satisfied with my attempts, but I feel as if I made some good progress by the third try.

Maybe I’ll try Angel next. (Hopefully, that will go better!)

My first attempt at drawing and painting Spike (James Marsters).
My second attempt at drawing and painting Spike (James Marsters).
My third attempt at drawing and painting Spike (James Marsters).

Scenes, Pt. 3: POV, or POV, Pt. 4: Scene Level

Here on my writing journey and most recent trip down the research rabbit hole, two subjects have collided: Scenes and Point of View (POV)—proving just how difficult it can be to break the writing process up into discrete parts. 

First, let me relieve some of you—if you’ve chosen to tell your story through a single POV character (first person or third person limited), none of this applies to you. You can stop reading right now, and go do something else because you already know who the POV character will be in every scene, you lucky thing, you!

Why is it so important to choose the right POV Character for a scene? In “Multiple Narrators? How to Choose the Right POV,” Alida Winterheimer explicitly states that the problems with using the wrong character’s POV in a scene are that you can lose the scene tension and you can bore the reader. Things we definitely don’t want to do.

So for those of us who are using multiple POV characters, once we’ve decided which characters are going to share POV duties, the job becomes deciding which character gets to tell which scenes. And that is not always as simple or easy as it might seem.

Sometimes it will be easy, for instance when a POV character is in a scene with only non-POV characters. But if there are multiple POV characters in the same scene, now we’ve got a decision to make.

The most common advice I came across was to decide which character has the most at stake in the scene. Generally, this is whose POV you want to use because with the most to lose, this character’s perspective is likely the most engaging.

A number of people distinguished between stakes and goals, suggesting that if the POV character whose goal drives the scene isn’t the same as who has the most at stake, this POV still might be the most compelling and the one to follow—especially if this character is the one with the most agency in the scene.

Keeping a secret was another common consideration. If one POV character has a secret and sharing that information would spoil the tension of the scene, that is a good reason to stay out of that character’s head.

Beyond these three common questions to ask about scenes and characters, the sources I found each came up with interesting additions.

In her article, “Who’s Telling Your Story?”, Alicia Rasley differentiates between external stakes and internal stakes within a scene. The same character may not have both the highest external stakes and the highest emotional stakes. If this is the case, then you need to decide which POV would be most gripping and use that one.

Rasley also has questions that I found useful when I couldn’t decide who had the most at stake in a scene: “Who will change the most because of the scene event?” and “Who’s going to have to make a big decision or take a great action in the scene?” 

Her parting advice is to think about the effect you want the scene to have on the reader and choose the POV character most likely to help you achieve that.

Michele Keller’s “Choosing the Right POV Character” makes a distinction between scenes and sequels, advising that in a sequel the POV character should be the one with the most at stake emotionally, even if this is not the same POV character from the preceding scene.

One of the “5 Tips for Choosing the POV Character for a Scene,” by Laura Silverio, is another question that’s helpful for when the stakes aren’t clear in a scene: “Who is experiencing the strongest emotions (failure, elation, envy, shock, etc)?”

Another tip is to “let the plot dictate,” by which she means that sometimes certain things need to happen or be described to keep the plot in motion and that one character will be better suited to that role. 

Silverio also makes the bold move of suggesting head-hopping. Of course she does so with the caveat that it must be used intentionally and judiciously so that you don’t fall into the pitfall of head-hopping: confusing your reader.

Jordan McCollum had a tip I liked quite a bit in her article, “Choosing the Right POV Character.” Choose the POV character “we just don’t get,” that is, the character who is hard to understand or whose reaction to the events of the scene might not make sense unless told from their point of view. It is often easier to relate to a character’s position or beliefs or reactions when we’re in their POV.

If you’ve already written your story and are noticing some issues with it, it may be worth going back and looking at the POV choices you made.

Returning to Winterheimer, her suggestions can help with this as they are geared more toward the revision phase of writing rather than the drafting phase. For instance, she suggests asking yourself how emotionally charged scenes are—if they are emotionally flat, you should consider changing the POV. 

Sometimes it can be surprisingly hard to figure out who has the most at stake in a scene, so I think all of the questions are going to be very helpful. In fact, I have a scene I could use these on right now . . . 

Alicia Rasley, “Who’s Telling Your Story? Choosing your viewpoint (POV) character,” https://www.aliciarasley.com/index.php/whos-telling-story-choosing-viewpoint-pov-character/

Michele Keller, “Choosing the Right POV Character,” http://themanuscriptshredder.com/pov/

Laura DiSilverio, “5 Tips for Choosing the POV Character for a Scene,” https://careerauthors.com/5-tips-for-choosing-the-pov-character-for-a-scene/

Jordan McCollum, ”CHOOSING THE RIGHT POV CHARACTER,” http://jordanmccollum.com/2012/04/choose-pov/

ALIDA WINTERNHEIMER | @ALIDAWINTERN, “Multiple Narrators? How to Choose the Right POV,” https://www.helpingwritersbecomeauthors.com/multiple-narrators-choose-right-pov/

Am I the Right Book Reviewer for You?

A few weeks ago, I added my first book review post to this blog. It was a list of my favorite Pride and Prejudice variations. As I said in that post, I wanted to review P&P variations because when I was looking for where to start, I had a hard time finding any that weren’t on Amazon. 

One thing I realized in reading reviews of any kind is that I never know if I should trust a reviewers opinion because I don’t know if we have the same taste in books, or movies, or music, or . . . anything, really.

With that in mind, I am going to present here a list of my favorite books of all time. Hopefully, this will give you a feeling for what I like in books, so when you see my future reviews, you’ll know whether or not you should pay any heed to my opinions.

The books on this list are presented in no particular order (basically, as they came to me.)

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

Well, given that I read P&P variations, this title could come as no shock whatsoever!

But why do I like it? I love the narrator and the way the narrator slyly comments on everything, exposing the hypocrisies and foibles of the times—it’s subtle satire, and I love it. Austen wrote of her novel that it was “rather too light & bright & sparkling,” but I must disagree with her. It is her ability to weave a story that is both sparkling and serious, that speaks to us about love and respect and learning from mistakesandpersonal growth, that inspires and awes me and keeps me coming back.

The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien 

In this book I love the scope, the world building, and the characters. Ah, Samwise.

The Vampire Lestat by Anne Rice

I also really liked Interview with a Vampire, but Lestat is my favorite because of the narrator—Lestat, himself. He is pure charisma. He’s bold and cheeky but with a surprisingly moral code. I defy anyone not to fall in love with him.

Skinny Legs and All by Tom Robbins

Okay, I’m sensing a theme here—I like books that make me laugh. No one does that better than Tom Robbins and in no book more than this one. How could I not love a book where some of the main characters are a Can O’Beans, a Dirty Sock, a Painted Stick and a Conch Shell? And it’s not just comedy for comedy’s sake—there are some profound insights into the human condition as well.

The Dune Series by Frank Herbert

These books don’t have the humor I love so much, but they do have complex, rich world building. These books are amazing in how they tell a relatively simple tale, but enrich that story with philosophy, religion, environmentalism, economics and more. I love all of the books, but my favorite is Children of Dune. Leto the second is a true hero—willing to make the tough decisions.

Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë

I loved Jane’s strength and Rochester’s brooding. I love the suspense of what is happening in the house and the shock of the truth, Jane’s bold yet reckless decision to leave, and her unwillingness to live in any way that is counter to her own inner sense of right.

Middlemarch by George Eliot

This is another book brimful of complex characters and a rich, detailed world. For some reason I didn’t think I’d like this book when it was assigned for a class, but I loved it.

His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman

What a wondrous journey. Multiple dimensions. Daemons. Complex characters. Philosophy.Harrowing journeys. Talking polar bears. First love.

The Eyre Affair by Jasper Fforde

This book is not only humorous, but super imaginative. It’s a strange and wonderful alternate universe where time travel is possible, street gangs identify by what poet they prefer, and the characters inside books are alive. Plus literary references galore! Top it off with a kick-ass female lead, and I’m a happy reader.

House of Spirits by Isabel Allende

This was my first experience with magical realism. So lovely and haunting.

The Stand by Stephen King 

I have always loved Stephen King books. It was hard to choose just one. His use of voice is so good, each character is so distinct. I think The Stand is my favorite, but ask me a different day and I might choose a different book. I haven’t read every book he’s written, but I have read a lot of them. The Stand stands out (ha, ha!) because of its scope. (Another recurring theme for my favorites appears to be books with a large cast of characters and an epic scale). I also like the post-apocalyptic survival aspect of this story. (Another couple of post-apocalyptic survival stories that I really liked are Lucifer’s Hammer by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle and The Passage by Justin Cronin.)

One thing I really hate about our society today is how much we know about the authors of our favorite books (and the creators of our favorite movies, music and tv shows). I really wish they’d all just make their art and otherwise keep out of the public eye. But they don’t.

Hence, “Death of the Author” and “Separate the Art from the Artist.” 

So, I hereby acknowledge the existence of, but do not in anyway support, the harmful views held by two artists whose works I love: J.K. Rowling and Orson Scott Card. Because of this, I can’t advocate purchasing these books new—buy them used and support local used bookstores.

The Harry Potter Series by J.K. Rowling

Again, this is a great mix of world building, humor, seriousness. Despite the author’s own prejudices, these books actually teach children to be more empathetic to others, and they speak to the idea that it’s what’s inside a person that counts, not some label that society puts on you.

Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card

This book isn’t humorous. But it does have a wonderfully complex and interesting main character. Ender may be a child in a battle school that orbits the earth, but through him the book asks big questions: what is okay to do to individuals in the name of the greater good? How does lack of a willingness to understand the “other” lead to the murder of innocents? Can ruthlessness be countered by compassion? Plus is has an amazing twist near the end.

POV, Pt. 3—How to Choose, Pt. 2

I thought I had it all figured out after my last post about choosing the right POV for my story. And then I listened to a Story Grid Editors Roundtable podcast that gave me even more to think about. It was both helpful and not.

The podcast, “Bite Size Edition – Choosing Your POV,” by Leslie Watts, pointed out that the choice of POV affects more than just what pronouns and verb tense are used—it can affect dialogue, setting details, and characters’ actions. This is especially true when POV is tied to narrative devices. But what is a “narrative device”?

When I searched for “narrative devices” the majority of resources listed techniques as varied as hyperbole and backstory—I think Google confused my search terms with narrative techniques and literary devices. What I think Watts meant by narrative device is what Joe Bunting called a “narrative framing device.” A narrative framing device is a way of telling the whole story—it is more global than say, a cliffhanger, which means a story or scene ends without resolving the conflict.

Some of the devices Bunting listed include epistolary, chronological, and framed story. So for example, in an epistolary novel, the story is told through letters (or emails, newspaper articles, etc.—think Bram Stoker’s Dracula or Stephen Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower). In these novels, the entire story is told via documents, and this choice affects everything. It limits what is known to the reader to what the letter writer knows and chooses to relate; it also influences the attitude with which the information is related. The reasons why the characters are writing and to whom they write becomes significant.

Watts said that POV tells you the where (in relation to the story events: in the action, for example, might mean a protagonist-narrator, while outside the actions might mean a god-like omniscient narrator) and when (this relates to verb tense—so, as the story is happening would be present tense, after the fact would be past tense).

So if POV is for the where and when, then the narrative device tells the who, what, how and why of the narrator. Who is telling the story? To whom? How are they telling the story? Why are they telling the story?

It was a bit of a revelation to think about these things. And they are not easy questions to answer. But I can see that if I could answer them, it would make the decision for me.

I think where I get hung up is if I’m thinking of telling a close third person POV. This is the most unobtrusive narrator. First person and, often, third omniscient narrators have distinct personalities. They are characters in their own right. They’ll color the events with their opinions and insights. And this is true if they are just telling a story or writing letters or keeping a diary.

Watts uses the example of Bridget Jones’s Diary: Bridget, the protagonist, is telling the story to herself via diary entries so that she can keep track of how well she’s sticking to her New Year’s resolutions. Because it’s a diary for herself, she’ll write about things in an unfiltered, yet prejudicial, way that she wouldn’t do if she were just telling a friend about what was happening. So it’s easy to see that this choice is really important.

But still, how do we answer these questions when our narrator is not a character?

I couldn’t find an answer to this question. But I did find something else from Watts that was helpful. In an answer to a question on the show notes page, Watts said she believes answering why the story is being told is critical, and we can think of it in terms of why we communicate: to persuade, to inform, to educate, to entertain.

Even with a close, unobtrusive third person POV, there is an answer to why. It seems to me that in this case the answer to why might have more to do with your story’s theme than when the narrator is also a character in the story. But I’m not sure yet.

Thinking about how the narration can alter elements of the storytelling is really important. Unfortunately, that doesn’t make figuring it out is easy.

Leslie Watts, “Bite Size Edition – Choosing Your POV,” Story Grid Editors Roundtable Podcast, https://storygrid.com/editor-roundtable-choosing-your-pov/

—. “Consider the Source: Elements of Point of View and Narrative Device,” https://storygrid.com/consider-the-source-pov/

Joe Bunting, “What Is a Narrative Device: 9 Types of Narrative Devices,” https://thewritepractice.com/narrative-devices/

POV, Pt 2: How to Choose

So now that I’ve got a better understanding of what POV is and the different options, it’s time to decide whose POV to share.

I don’t know this for sure, but I imagine that most authors already have some idea of who their main character is going to be. I guess it probably depends on how you get your inspiration—if it is character driven, then you may already have an answer to “Who’s telling the story?” But if your inspiration comes from situations or themes, then the answer may be harder to determine. If you’re wanting to write an epic, you will probably have a very large cast of characters, which can also make deciding who to follow difficult.

So how to choose if you don’t already know?

K.M. Weiland has some very good questions you can ask yourself to help you decide, starting with, “whose story is this?” If you don’t know the answer to this, she has more questions, such as “who has the most at stake?”, “who will undergo the most dramatic arc?”, and “who has the best narrative voice?” She also suggest you consider what can be gained or lost by including different POVs.

When it comes to deciding between first person and third, a number of sources suggest going with the POV that you either enjoy most as a reader yourself or the one that is the easiest for you to write. I can see the value in this advice, but for myself I didn’t find it helpful. I like both first and third pretty equally and have found some scenes easier to write in first but others easier in third, so I was still at a loss.

Another piece of advice given by multiple sources is to pick a scene and write it from both POVs—I did this, but this didn’t give me any clarity either. Since I enjoyed both versions of the scene, I asked my mom and my best friend which one they each liked best. The results? My mom liked the first person version and my BFF liked the third person version! Hiyiyi! Back to down the rabbit hole.

If the personal preference advice isn’t helping then Weiland’s post, “How to Choose the Right POV,” is, again, a good place to start. Here is where her distinction between multiple POVs and limited POV comes in handy. Do you want to have one POV character or ten? If one, you’re looking at first person or close third. If you want two to four POV characters, you could probably get a way with the same choices. But once you decide to follow more than four characters it becomes increasingly difficult to follow them closely without confusing the reader (or so just about every source I encountered assured me). So distant third person is probably a more logical choice.

In “6 Tips to Choosing the Right Point of View” by Nancy Kress, she suggests asking yourself how closely you want the readers to relate to your POV characters. If you want them to closely identify with them, then first or third is a good choice. If you want to be able to tell things about the character that the character wouldn’t say about themselves, then you’ll want either close or distant third. If you want the narrator to comment on the proceedings, go with omniscient third.

Janice Hardy suggests, among other things, to look at what’s common for the genre you’re writing in. This is what I finally did to decide.

I’m writing a romance, but I couldn’t find anything that just told me what the conventions were (maybe I didn’t have the right search question), so I did my own research. I looked at lists of the best romance novels ever, the best romantic comedy novels, and the best romance novels for 2015-2020, then used the search inside feature on Amazon to find out which POV they used. I kept a tally. Of course this isn’t a definitive study, but I found that out of 106 books, 61 were in first person and 45 were in third. So I decided to write my story in third person—go figure!

But that’s not all! I still have to decide between past and present tense.

So will it be “I hate to see a warm cookie go to waste,” “I hated to see a warm cookie go to waste,” “She hates to see a warm cookie go to waste,” or “She hated to see warm a cookie go to waste”?

In Diane Callahan’s videos on first and third person POV, she discusses how some authors like the immediacy that using present tense brings. Though less common with third person than with first person, some authors feel that using present tense helps the reader to feel that they are experiencing the story with the characters.

It’s funny because until recently, I hadn’t read very much in first person present tense, and now I feel as if it’s everywhere. I’m getting used to it, but I find it can make the voice a little stiff and awkward if not done right. It also makes the narration more conspicuous. Even in first person, somehow I’m more aware of the narrator as a storyteller when present tense is used. These are obviously my own feelings and reactions to present tense, so while I probably won’t be using the present tense in my own writing anytime soon, I don’t mean to discourage anyone else from trying it.

POV—who knew it’d be so complicated?

K.M. Weiland, “How to Choose the Right POV (What I Learned Writing Storming),” https://www.helpingwritersbecomeauthors.com/how-to-choose-the-right-pov/

Nancy Kress, “6 Tips to Choosing the Right Point of View,” https://www.writersdigest.com/writing-articles/6-tips-to-choosing-the-right-point-of-view

Janice Hardy, this link has links to twenty-one of Hardy’s articles on POV: http://blog.janicehardy.com/2008/02/point-of-view-pov.html

Diane Callahan, “All About Writing in Third Person,” https://youtu.be/fp5ITwpllEw

—. “All About Writing in First Person,” https://youtu.be/0tmkHYz13UY

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